Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1229-3571(Print)
ISSN : 2287-819X(Online)
Korean Journal of Organic Agricultue Vol.26 No.2 pp.245-257
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11625/KJOA.2018.26.2.245

Effect of Sex Pheromone Trap and Bio-insecticides against Large Black Chafer (Holotrichia parallela) in Organic Pear Orchards*

Jang-Hoon Song**, Abdul Alim Md**, Eu-Ddeum Choi**, Ho-Jin Seo****

These authors contributed equally to this work as the first author.


Corresponding author, Pear Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science (shj2992@korea.kr, shj2992@gmail.com)
February 8, 2018 March 23, 2018 April 25, 2018

Abstract


The efficacy of different control techniques against the large black chafer, Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in organic pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) orchards was evaluated. In this study, field trials were conducted in three locations in Korea—Naju, Hampyeong, and Boseong—to evaluate different techniques to suppress these beetles. Pheromone traps, bio-insecticides (Hongmengye and Melchungdaejang), and a combination of the two were applied as treatments. In Naju, Hampyeong, and Boseong, the highest number of adult H. parallela were caught in the control plots (n=45, n=39, and n=20, respectively), while the fewest were caught in the pheromone plus bio-insecticide plot (n=19) in Naju and in the combined treatment plot in Hampyeong (n=10). In Naju, the greatest leaf damage was observed in the control (66%), and in all locations (Naju, Boseong, and Hampyeong), the least damage occurred in the combined treatment plots (42%, 36%, and 24%, respectively). Regarding the tree canopy, the greatest leaf damage was observed in the upper canopy, and less damage was observed in the lower canopy. These results demonstrate that the combination of sex pheromone traps and bio-insecticides can be used to manage H. parallela in organic pear orchards.



배 유기재배 과원에서 성페르몬 트랩과 살충효과 유기농자재가 큰검정풍뎅이 방제에 미치는 영향

송 장훈**, 압 둘알림**, 최 으뜸**, 서 호진****
**Pear Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science
***Department of Entomology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University

초록


    Rural Development Administration
    PJ009249012017

    Ⅰ. Introduction

    The large black chafer, Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants worldwide (Jackson, 1992; Liu et al., 2009b). This beetle has a wide distribution in China, Korea, and Japan and causes serious losses to many agricultural and horticultural plants (Liu et al., 2003; Choi et al., 2006). This chafer produces one generation a year and overwinters as mature larvae and, in a few cases, as adults. The chafers are shrub leaf feeders and prefer the leaves of organic pear trees in particular. They occur in organic pear orchards from late June to late September, and severe infestation by these beetles causes defoliation of the pear trees. As a result, the rate of photosynthesis is decreased, and ultimately fruit set is hampered. The reduction in sweet potato yield caused by the large black chafer is estimated to be 2-40% in Korea and, in some cases, up to 80% when there is no effective control in place (Kim, 1990). Control of the large black chafer mainly depends on the application of chemical insecticides such as organophosphates and carbamates (Qu et al., 2011). These insecticides have been used to control young larvae, i.e., first and second instars, for many years. However, the efficacy of control is not satisfactory because of concealment of the white grub (Liu et al., 2008) and the development of insecticide resistance by the larval stage (Liu et al., 2009a). Because of growing concern for the environment and human safety, alternative strategies for white grub control are urgently needed to replace the highly toxic chemical pesticides that are currently being used (Gaugler, 1998; Choo et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2009a).

    Sex pheromone blends of large black chafer, H. parallela, consisting of a major component, L-isoleucine methyl ester (LIME), and a minor component, (R)-(-)-linalool, have exhibited different attractiveness in potato fields in South Korea depending on the mixing ratios of the two components (Choi et al., 2006). In one field mass trapping study of H. parallela using their sex pheromones the greatest number of adults caught by one trap in one day was 977 (Xiao et al., 2012). Antifeedants that deter or suppress feeding by phytophagous insects have potential value for plant protection (Chapman, 1974; Warthen, 1979; Prokopy & Lewis, 1993). These substances may be comprised of either extracts of plants that are resistant to the target pest (Metzger & Grant, 1932; Chapman, 1974) or commercially formulated secondary plant compounds such as azadirachtin (Schmutterer, 1990). To provide an alternative method for the economic, safe, and effective control of large black chafer and to further the development of organic pear production, in this study, the efficacies of sex pheromone traps and bio-insecticides on the control of large black chafer were evaluated.

    Ⅱ. Materials and Methods

    1. Field experiments

    Field trials were conducted in organic pear orchards naturally infested with H. parallela at three locations—Naju, Hampyeong, and Boseong—in Jollanam-do Province, Republic of Korea. The experiments were conducted July to September, 2016. Each orchard was divided into four plots 30×28 m2, each with a buffer zone, and each plot was assigned one of four treatments resulting in each treatment being replicated three times. Four rows of pears were established between the buffer zones (another four rows, 30 m). The four treatments consisted of 1) sex pheromone traps, 2) bio-insecticides, 3) sex pheromone traps + bio-insecticides, and 4) a control. Light traps (blue light, 360 nm, Damok Ecological Technology Co. Korea) were used to monitor insects in all the treatments (Fig. 1B). Sex pheromone traps and lures were acquired from a domestic company (Green Agro Tech., Republic of Korea) (Fig. 1A), and the bio-insecticides Hongmengye (Sophora flavescens extracts, Farm Korea Co., Korea) and Melchungdaejang (Plant extract + wood vinegar + matrine 0.45%, Nature and Future Co. Korea) were commercially available and purchased from a local market. The two bio-insecticides were tank-mixed together with 500 fold and sprayed four times in a one-week interval. Traps were emptied once per week, and the number of beetles was recorded. Trapping continued until beetles were no longer consistently caught in every trap and leaf damage in the canopy was estimated during the study (Fig. 2). Sampling zones within the tree canopy were defined as upper (>150 cm above ground), middle (75-150 cm above ground), and lower (<75 cm above ground). Two pheromone traps with pheromone lures were installed in each pheromone treatment plot at a height of 1.8 m. Data were collected once before application of the treatments and six more times after the treatments were applied.

    2. Statistical analyses

    Mean seasonal data were analyzed with a general linear model (GLM, univariate) in SPSS, version 16. Leaf damage at different canopy heights and among the different treatments were analyzed with a chi-square test followed by Tukey tests for multiple comparison for all post-hoc analyses (Zar, 2010).

    Ⅲ. Results and Discussion

    1. Results and Discussion

    In Naju, 992 H. parallela adult beetles were caught by 8 traps (four light traps and four pheromone traps) from July to early September in 2016. The mean number of adults caught per trap was greatest in the control treatment and lowest in the sex pheromone trap + bio-insecticide treatment plot (Table 1), and the number of H. parallela caught in light traps was significantly different among treatments (F=5.3; df=3; P<0.05). The second greatest number of H. parallela (n=829) were captured at Hampyeong. Among the treatments, the fewest adult beetles were caught in the combined treatment plot, but this was not significant (F=2.3; df=3; P=0.097) (Table 1).

    In Boseong, the greatest number of beetles were caught in the control plot and the fewest in the pheromone trap plot, but this difference was not significantly different (F=2.2; df=3; P= 0.106) (Table 1). Only the pheromone traps at Naju site captured a few adult beetles (Fig. 6). However, very few adult beetles were caught by the light and pheromone traps in Boseong and Hampyeong, and there was no statistical difference between the treatments. These two locations contained commercial organic pear orchards, and the growers implemented other control techniques frequently, which might have affected the results of the four treatments applied in this study. Holotrichia parallela appeared in the orchards in the first week of July and peaked in August at all experimental sites (Figs. 3-5). Similarly, Paik et al. (2007) observed that the H. parallela populations start appearing from late July to mid-August in sweet potato fields in Korea.

    Holotrichia parallela caused significant effects on the three organic pear orchards regarding leaf damage. The greatest number of damaged leaves was observed in the control plot and the fewest in the combined sex pheromone and bio-insecticide plot in Naju where the number of damaged leaves was significantly different among treatments (χ2=691.3; df=3; P<0.001) (Table 2). The second greatest number of damaged leaves was observed in the sex pheromone trap plot followed by that in the bio-insecticide treatment. In Hampyeong, the greatest number of damaged leaves was found in the sex pheromone trap plot and the fewest in the combined treatment plot, and all plots had significantly different numbers of damaged leaves (χ2=12.9; df=3; P=0.004) (Table 2). In Boseong, the greatest number of damaged leaves was in the control, and the fewest were in the combined treatment plot. All treatments here were also significantly different from each other (χ2=37.4; df=3; P<0.001) (Table 2).

    Regarding leaf damage at the three different canopy levels (lower, middle, and upper), the number of damaged leaves was significantly different. A greater number of damaged leaves was found in the upper canopy, and fewer were found in the lower canopy in all treatment plots, and these differences were statistically different (Naju: sex pheromone trap plot, χ2=547.076; df=2; P<0.001; bio-insecticide plot, χ2=388.1; df=2; P<0.001; combined plot, χ2=275.3; df=2; P<0.001; control, χ2=285.1; df = 2; P<0.001; Hampyeong: sex pheromone trap plot, χ2=349.1; df=2; P<0.001; bio-insecticide plot, χ2=558.2; df=2; P<0.001; combined plot, χ2=398.1; df=2; P<0.001; control, χ2=582.7; df=2; P<0.001; Boseong: sex pheromone trap plot, χ2=201.3; df=2; P<0.001; bio-insecticide plot, χ2=222.0; df=2; P<0.001; combined plot, χ2=241.1; df=2; P<0.001; control, χ2=346.3; df=2; P<0.001) (Figs. 7-9).

    Among the six species of scarabaeids, Holotrichia serrata Fabricius has been shown to cause greater leaf damage (39%) then other species have on rose plants (Kumar et al., 2009). In similar studies to the current one, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, has been found to consume more untreated foliage than foliage treated with either a low or high rate of a commercial neem extract (Azatin XL), corresponding to 9- or 39-ppm azadirachtin, respectively (Held et al., 2001), and Gu et al. (2008) estimated that P. japonica damaged 32% of the leaves in Betula papyrifera L. Likewise, our results showed that H. parallela caused damage to 29-66% of leaves in control plots in three different organic pear orchards.The control of white grubs is dependent on the application of chemical insecticides such as organophosphates (e.g., chlorpyrifos) and carbamates (Qu et al. 2011). These insecticides have been used to control young larvae, i.e., first and second instars, for many years. However, the control efficacy has not been satisfactory because of the concealment of the white grubs (Liu et al. 2008) and development of insecticide resistance by the beetles (Liu et al. 2009). As concerns for the environment and human safety increase, alternative strategies for white grub control are urgently needed to replace the highly toxic chemical pesticides currently being used (Gaugler 1998, Choo et al. 2002, Liu et al. 2009). Potential alternatives, Steinernema longicaudum X-7 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06, have shown promise for white grub control in peanut fields (Guo et al., 2013).

    Ⅳ. Conclusions

    Despite the fact that our results suggest that pheromone traps did not work well, our experimental conditions represent a typical commercial pear grower’s field. Given that H. parallela adults are polyphagous and mobile, it is unlikely that they would remain for long on a host that has been treated with bio-insecticides and sex pheromones. However, this result might be reduced by applying both at relatively high rates thus prolonging their effective usefulness. Thus, the combination of sex pheromone traps and the two commercially available bio-insecticides evaluated here can be used to manage H. parallela adults in organic pear orchards, but further investigation is needed to evaluate the efficacy of pheromone traps and biopesticides.

    Figure

    KJOA-26-245_F1.gif

    Pheromone trap (A) and light trap (B) installed in different treatments.

    KJOA-26-245_F2.gif

    Damaged pear leaves (A) and adults Holotrichia parallela caught by traps (B).

    KJOA-26-245_F3.gif

    Seasonal fluctuation of adult Holotrichia parallela captured by light traps in an organic pear orchard in Naju.

    Vertical bars indicate ± standard errors (n=3). Arrows indicate when bio-insecticides were applied to the tree canopy.

    KJOA-26-245_F4.gif

    Seasonal fluctuation of adult Holotrichia parallela captured by light traps in an organic pear orchard in Hampyeong.

    Vertical bars indicate ± standard errors (n=3). Arrows indicate when bio-insecticides were applied to the tree canopy.

    KJOA-26-245_F5.gif

    Seasonal fluctuation of adult Holotrichia parallela captured by light traps in an organic pear orchard in Boseong

    Vertical bars indicate ± standard errors (n=3). Arrows indicate when bio-insecticides were applied to the tree canopy.

    KJOA-26-245_F6.gif

    Seasonal fluctuation of adult Holotrichia parallela captured by pheromone traps in Naju.

    Vertical bars indicate ± standard errors (n=3).

    KJOA-26-245_F7.gif

    Seasonal leaf damage in the lower, middle, and upper plant canopies of an organic pear orchard in Holotrichia parallela treatment plots in an organic pear orchard in Naju.

    Vertical bars indicate ± standard errors (n=3). Different lowercase letters above each bar indicate significantly different means as determined by Tukey’s multiple range tests.

    KJOA-26-245_F8.gif

    Seasonal leaf damage in the lower, middle, and upper plant canopies of an organic pear orchard in Holotrichia parallela treatment plots in an organic pear orchard in Hampyeong.

    Vertical bars indicate ± standard errors (n=3). Different lowercase letters above each bar indicate significantly different means as determined by Tukey’s multiple range tests.

    KJOA-26-245_F9.gif

    Seasonal leaf damage in the lower, middle, and upper plant canopies of an organic pear orchard in Holotrichia parallela treatment plots in an organic pear orchard in Boseong.

    Vertical bars indicate ± standard errors (n=3). Different lowercase letters above each bar indicate significantly different means as determined by Tukey’s multiple range tests.

    Table

    Mean number of Holotrichia parallela per light trap among different control treatments at three locations from July to September in 2016

    z.From July 15 to September 2 in 2016, the number of adults trapped in the light trap was counted cumulatively at intervals of one week.
    y.Means followed by different letters within a column are significantly different from each other based on a Tukey multiple comparison test (<i>p</i><0.05).

    Percentage of cumulative leaf damage for the different treatments in three organic pear orchards from July to September in 2016z

    z.From July 15 to September 2 in 2016, the number of adults trapped in the light trap was counted cumulatively at intervals of one week.
    y.Means followed by different letters within a column are significantly different from each other based on a Tukey multiple comparison test (<i>p</i><0.05).

    Reference

    1. R.F. Chapman (1974) The chemical inhibition of feeding by phytophagous insects: a review., Bull. Entomol. Res., Vol.64 ; pp.339-363
    2. M.Y. Choi , C.H. Paik , H.Y. Seo , G.H. Lee , J.D. Kim , B.D. Riotberg , G. Gries (2006) Attractiveness of sex pheromone of the large black chaefer, Holotrichia parallela (Motschulasky) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in potato field., Korean J. Appl. Entomol., Vol.45 ; pp.169-172
    3. H.Y. Choo , H.K. Kaya , J. Huh , D.W. Lee , H.H. Kim , S.M. Lee , Y.M. Choo (2002) Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) and a fungus Beauveria brongniartii for biological control of the white grubs, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Exomala orientalis, in Korean golf courses., BioControl, Vol.47 ; pp.177-192
    4. R. Gaugler (1998) Ecological consideration in the biological control using entomopathogenic nematodes., Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., Vol.24 ; pp.351-360
    5. M. Gu , J.A. Robbins , C.R. Rom , D.L. Hensley (2008) Feeding damage of Japanese beetle (Col.: Scarabaeidae) on 16 field-grown birch (Betula L.) genotypes., J. Appl. Entomol., Vol.132 ; pp.425-429
    6. W. Guo , X. Yan , C. Zhao (2013) Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Steinernema and Heterorhabditis Nematodes Against White Grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Peanut Fields., J. Econ. Entomol., Vol.106 ; pp.1112-1117
    7. D.W. Held , T. Eaton , D.A. Potter (2001) Potential for habituation to a neem-based feeding deterrent in Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica., Entomol. Exp. Appl., Vol.101 ; pp.25-32
    8. T.A. Jackson , T.A. Jackson , T.R. Glare (1992) Use of pathogens in scarab pest management., Intercept Ltd., ; pp.1-10
    9. K.W. Kim (1990) Flight activities of large black chafer (Holotrochia morose Waterhouse) and Korean blackchafer (H. diomphalia Bates)., Korean J. Appl. Entomol., Vol.29 ; pp.222-229
    10. K.W. Kim , J.S. Hyun (1988) Bionomics of large black chafer (Holotrichia morose Waterhouse) and Korean blackchafer (H. diomphalia Bates) with special reference to their morphological characteristics and life histories., Korean J. Appl. Entomol., Vol.27 ; pp.21-27
    11. S. Kumara , M. Sankar , V. Sethuramana , A. Musthak (2009) Population dynamics of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the rose environment of Northern Bangalore,India., Indian J. Sci. Technol., Vol.2 ; pp.46-52
    12. Xiao Li (2012) Controlling Holotrichia parallela in peanut fields by sex pheromone., Plant Prot., Vol.38 ; pp.176-179
    13. A.Z. Liu , S.J. Li , L.M. Tao (2003) Regulation of the distribution of peanut white grubs and evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticides in controlling this pest., Entomol. Knowl., Vol.40 ; pp.45-47
    14. S.S. Liu , K.B. Li , C.Q. Liu , Q.L. Wang , J. Yin , Y.Z. Cao (2009) Identification of a strain of Heterorhabditis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) from Hebei and its virulence to white grubs., Acta Entomol. Sin., Vol.52 ; pp.959-966b
    15. S.S. Liu , K.B. Li , J. Yin , Y.Z. Cao (2008) Review of the researches on biological control of grubs., Zhongguo Shengwu Fangzhi Xuebao, Vol.24 ; pp.168-173
    16. Q.Z. Liu , X.K. Du , L.J. Zhang , S.Y. Zhang , N. Xie , L.L. Liang (2009) Effectiveness of Steinernema longicaudum BPS for chafer grub control in peanut plot., Plant Prot., Vol.35 ; pp.150-153a
    17. F.W. Metzger , D.H. Grant (1932) Repellency to the Japanese beetle of extracts made from plants immune to attack. United States Department of Agriculture (technical bulletin 299). Washington, D. C. pp. 1-21.,
    18. R.J. Prokopy , W.J. Lewis , D.R. Papaj , A.C. Lewis (1993) Insect Learning: Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives., Chapman & Hall, ; pp.308-342
    19. M. Qu , X. Jiang , Q. Ju , J. Chen , Z. Zhao , Q. Chen , S. Yu (2011) Control and residual effects of several insecticides against the peanut grubs., Plant Prot., Vol.37 ; pp.167-169
    20. H. Schmutterer (1990) Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica., Annu. Rev. Entomol., Vol.35 ; pp.271-297
    21. J. D. Warthen (1979) Azadirachta indica: a source of insect feeding inhibitors and growth regulators. United States Agricultural Reviews and Manuals ARM-NE-4.,