Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1229-3571(Print)
ISSN : 2287-819X(Online)
Korean Journal of Organic Agricultue Vol.26 No.1 pp.141-149
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11625/KJOA.2018.26.1.141

Effects of Eco-friendly Multi-enzyme on Growth Performance, Intestinal Morphology, and Nutrient
Digestibility of weaned Pigs

Seong-Ki Kim**, Myung-Woo Cho***, Jun-Su Kim****, Ki-Beom Jang****, Sheen-A Kim****, Da-Ye Mun****, Byeong-Hyeon Kim****, Young-Hwa Kim******, Jun-Cheol Park******, Jee-Hwan Choe*****, Min-Ho Song*****

† These authors contributed equally to this work as the first-authors.

Corresponding authors, Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University(choejhw@gmail.com,mhsong@cnu.ac.kr)
20180126 20180210 20180212

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of multi-enzyme on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total 36 weaned pigs (5.92 ± 0.48 kg BW; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme (Multi; mixture of β- mannanase, xylanase, α-amylase, protease, β-glucanase, and pectinase). Pigs were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Measurements were growth performance, morphology of ileum, apparent ileal digestibility and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and energy of weaned pigs. There were no significant differences on growth performance during overall experimental period. No differences were found for the morphology of ileum and nutrient digestibility between CON and Multi groups. Therefore, the results in the current study indicated that multi-enzyme supplementation in diets had no effects on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.


친환경 복합효소제 첨가가 이유자돈의 성장, 장내 형태학, 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향

김 성기**, 조 명우***, 김 준수****, 장 기범****, 김 신아****, 문 다예****, 김 병현****, 김 영화******, 박 준철******, 최 지환*****, 송 민호*****
**Woosung Distribution Co., LTD.
***Easy Bio Inc.
****Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University
******National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration

초록


    Rural Development Administration
    PJ01229401

    Ⅰ.Introduction

    Supplementation of exogenous enzymes in swine diets has been attracted much attention in recent years to increase nutrient digestibility and utilization of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) (Ayoade et al., 2012; Kang et al., 2017; Kim et al., 2017). Non-starch polysaccharides cannot be digested by endogenous digestive enzymes of pigs. The high NSP in diets decrease utilization of nutrients and thus decrease the growth performance of pigs and chickens. Soybean meal is a main ingredient as a protein source in diets for livestock in the world (FAO, 2004). However, it includes not only abundant amounts of proteins but also plenty of carbohydrates that are mainly composed of NSP and oligosaccharides (Choct, 1997). Soybean meal is composed of about 22.7% NSP such as β-galactomannan and α-galactosides and corn, another main ingredient in livestock diets, also contains 10% NSP, mainly arabinoxylan and β-galactomannan (CVB, 1998).

    Weaned pigs have immature digestive tracts and cannot produce enough endogenous digestive enzyme compared with adult pigs (Park et al., 2016; Song et al., 2015). Especially, when the nursery pigs face to weaning, they would be subjected to extreme stress which affects gastrointestinal physiology, microbiology, and immunology (Hampson, 1986; Pluske et al., 1997; Brooks et al., 2001). Thus, weaned pigs have difficulty to digest corn and soybean meal based diets that contain high amount of NSP by their endogenous enzymes. Most of studies focused on the effects of exogenous enzymes when they were supplemented in diets containing high fiber ingredients, such as rice, barley, wheat, and palm kernel expellers, while there few studies were performed on typical corn and soybean meal based diets with exogenous enzymes (Shim et al., 2003; Fan et al., 2009). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of multi-enzyme supplementation in a corn and soybean meal based diets on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrition digestibility of weaning pigs.

    Ⅱ.Materials and Methods

    The Chungnam National University Institutional Animal Care and Use approved all experimental protocols used in this study (approval code: CNU-00611).

    1.Experimental design, animals, and diets

    A total of 36 weaned pigs [Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire); 5.92 ± 0.48 kg of average BW; 28 d old] were used in this experiment. Pigs were moved to nursery pens equipped with a feeder and waterer in an environmentally controlled room and randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicated pens/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme [Multi; mixture of β-mannanase, xylanase, α-amylase, protease, β -glucanase, and pectinase] which were commercially purchased. Pigs were fed respective dietary treatments for 6 wk using a 2-phase feeding program with declining diet complexity and each phase was 3 wk. The diets did not include spray-dried plasma, antibiotics, or zinc oxide to avoid their antibacterial or physiological effects (Table 1). Pigs were allowed free access to diets and water at all times. For measurements of intestinal morphology, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), and apparent ileal digestibility (AID), 12 pigs were randomly selected (2 pigs from each pen).

    2.Sample collection and analyses

    1)Growth performance

    The pigs were individually weighed at the start and 42 of the experiment and the average body weight gain (ADG) was calculated. Amounts of feed supplied per pen were recorded and the rest of feed was weighed at the end of experiment. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) was calculated the difference between the amount of supplied and residual feed. The gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) was the ratio between ADG and ADFI.

    2)Intestinal morphology

    After the 6 wk experimental period, the 12 pigs selected as previously mentioned were euthanized using CO2 after injection of zoletil. Tissue samples from the small intestine were directly collected. Segments of ileum (about 5 cm in length) were taken and flushed with distilled water to take out any excess blood and digesta. Then, the tissues were immersed in a 6% formaldehyde phosphate buffer and kept at 4℃. The fixed intestinal tissues were embedded in paraffin, sectioned at a 5 μm thickness, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The slides were imaged using a digital slide scanner (NanoZoomer Digital Pathology System; Hamamatsu Co., Bridgewater, NJ). All measurements were conducted in the associated slide-viewing software (NDP. view; Hamamatsu Co.). The intestinal morphological measurements included villus height, width, and area, crypt depth, and goblet cell number.

    3)Apparent total tract digestibility

    For the measurement of ATTD, chrome oxide, an indigestible marker, was added at 0.25% of the respective dietary treatments. The 12 pigs selected as previously mentioned were fed each dietary treatment with 0.25% chromic oxide between d 36 and 42 after weaning. Fecal samples were collected for 3 days post the 4-d adjustment period. Fecal samples were immediately stored at -20℃. Fecal samples were dried in a forced-air drying oven at 60°C and ground through a cyclone mill (Foss Tecator Sycltec 1093, HillerØd, Denmark) before analysis. Fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter (method 930.15; AOAC, 2000), nitrogen (method 988.05; AOAC, 2000), and gross energy using a bomb calorimeter (Parr 1281 Bomb Calorimeter, Parr Instrument Co., Moline, IL, USA).

    4)Apparent ileal digestibility

    After the 6 wk experimental period, the 12 pigs selected as previously mentioned were euthanized using CO2 after injection of zoletil. Tissue samples from the small intestine were directly collected. Digesta samples were immediately stored at -20℃. Digesta samples were dried in a forced-air drying oven at 60°C and ground through a cyclone mill (Foss Tecator Sycltec 1093, HillerØd, Denmark) before analysis. Digesta samples were analyzed for dry matter (method 930.15; AOAC, 2000), nitrogen (method 988.05; AOAC, 2000), and gross energy using a bomb calorimeter (Parr 1281 Bomb Calorimeter, Parr Instrument Co., Moline, IL, USA).

    5)Statistical analysis

    Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) in a randomized complete block design. The pen was used as the experimental unit for the growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical significance and tendency were considered at p<0.05 and 0.05≤p<0.10, respectively.

    Ⅲ.Results and Discussion

    No difference was found for ADG, ADFI, and G:F ratio between treatments during the overall experimental period (Table 2). There were also no significant differences on intestinal morphology including villus height, crypt depth, and ratio of villus height to crypt depth in ileum between treatments (Table 3). In terms of nutrient digestibility, no significant differences were observed (Fig. 1 and 2) for both apparent total tract digestibility and apparent ileal digestibility of DM, CP, and energy between treatments.

    The present experiment did not observe any positive influence of multi-enzyme composed of β-mannanase, xylanase, α-amylase, protease, β-glucanase, and pectinase on growth performance, gut morphology, and nutrient digestibility compared with CON. Some published papers also showed consistent results with this research (Officer, 1995; Barrera et al., 2004; Olukosi et al., 2007). This variation in previous and current studies might be due to the variation in composition of diets, types of enzymes, and the mode of action of exogenous enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Consequently, this research indicated that supplementation of multi-enzyme in corn and soybean meal based diets for weaned pigs have no influence growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility.

    Figure

    KJOA-26-141_F1.gif

    Apparent total tract digestibility of weaned pigs fed dietary treatments.

    Values are means ± SEM. CON = control diet based on corn and soybean meal, Multi = CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme (mixture of β-mannanase, xylanase, α-amylase, protease, β-glucanase, and pectinase). No statistical differences were observed between CON and Multi.

    KJOA-26-141_F2.gif

    Apparent ileal digestibility of weaned pigs fed dietary treatments.

    Values are means ± SEM. CON = control diet based on corn and soybean meal, Multi = CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme (mixture of β-mannanase, xylanase, α-amylase, protease, β-glucanase, and pectinase). No statistical differences were observed between CON and Multi.

    Table

    Composition of experimental diets for weaned pigs (as-fed basis)

    1)Phase 1 = wk 1 to 3 (21 days).
    2)Phase 2 = wk 4 to 6 (21 days).
    3)Provided per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 12,000 IU; vitamin D3, 2,500 IU; vitamin E, 30 IU; vitamin K3, 3 mg; D-pantothenic acid, 15 mg; nicotinic acid, 40 mg; choline, 400 mg; vitamin B12, 12 μg.
    4)Provided per kilogram of diet: Fe, 90 mg from iron sulfate; Cu, 8.8 mg from copper sulfate; Zn, 100 mg from zinc oxide; Mn, 54 mg from manganese oxide; I, 0.35 mg from potassium iodide; Se, 0.30 mg from sodium selenite.

    Growth performance of weaned pigs fed dietary treatments during overall experimental period

    1)CON = control diet based on corn and soybean meal.
    2)Multi = CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme (mixture of β-mannanase, xylanase, α-amylase, protease, β- glucanase, and pectinase).
    3)SEM = standard error of mean.

    Morphology of ileum of weaning pigs fed dietary treatments

    1)CON = control diet based on corn and soybean meal.
    2)Multi = CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme (mixture of β-mannanase, xylanase, α-amylase, protease, β- glucanase, and pectinase).
    3)SEM = standard error of mean.

    Reference

    1. AOACAOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis., Association of Official Analytical Chemists,
    2. AyoadeD.I. KiarieE. WoyengoT.A. SlominskiB.A. NyachotiC.M. (2012) Effect of a carbohydrase mixture on ileal amino acid digestibility in extruded full-fat soybeans fed to finishing pigs. , J. Anim. Sci., Vol.90 ; pp.3842-3847
    3. BarreraM. CervantesM. SauerW.C. AreizaA.B. TorrenteraN. CervantesM. (2004) Iieal amino acid digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets supplemented with xylanase. , J. Anim. Sci., Vol.82 ; pp.1997-2003
    4. BrooksP.H. MoranC.A. BealJ.D. DemeckovaV. CampbellA. , VarleyM.A. WisemanJ.R. InternationalC.A.B. (2001) The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management., ; pp.153-178
    5. ChoctM. (1997) Feed non-starch polysaccharides: Chemical structures and nutritional significance. , Feed Milling Int., Vol.191 ; pp.13-36
    6. CVBCVB (1998) Centraal Veevoeder Bureau. Veevoedertalel (Feeding value of feed ingredients). Centraal Veevoeder Bureau, Runderweg 6., Lelystad,
    7. FanC.L. HanX.Y. XuZ.R. WangL.J. ShiL.R. (2009) Effects of I -glucanase and xylanase supplementation on gastrointestinal digestive enzyme activities of weaned piglets fed a barley-based diet. , J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl.), Vol.93 ; pp.271-276
    8. FAOFAO (2004) Protein sources for the animal feed industry., Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
    9. HampsonD.J. (1986) Alterations in piglet small intestinal structure at weaning. , Res. Vet. Sci., Vol.40 ; pp.32-40
    10. KangJ. ChoJ. JangK. KimJ. KimS. MunD. KimB. KimY. ParkJ. ChoeJ. SongM. (2017) Effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on diarrhea and immune responses of weaned pigs. , Korean J. Agri. Sci., Vol.44 ; pp.525-530
    11. KimY. BaekJ. JangK. KimJ. KimS. MunD. KimB. KimY. ParkJ. ChoeJ. SongM. (2017) Effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. , Korean J. Agri. Sci., Vol.44 ; pp.513-518
    12. OfficerD.I. (1995) Effect of multienzyme supplements on the growth performance of piglets during the pre- and post-weaning periods. , Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., Vol.56 ; pp.55-65
    13. OlukosiO.A. SandsJ.S. AdeolaO. (2007) Supplementation of carbohydrases or phytase individually or in combination to diets for weanling and growing-finishing pigs. , J. Anim. Sci., Vol.85 ; pp.1702-1711
    14. ParkS.W. KimB.H. KimY.H. KimS. JangK.B. KimY.H. ParkJ.C. SongM.H. OhS.N. (2016) Nutrition and feed approach according to pig physiology. , Korean J. Agri. Sci., Vol.43 ; pp.750-760
    15. PluskeJ.R. HampsonD.J. WilliamsI.H. (1997) Factors influencing the structure and function of the small intestine in the weaned pig: A review. , Livest. Prod. Sci., Vol.51 ; pp.215-236
    16. ShimY.H. ChaeB.J. LeeJ.H. (2003) Effect of phytase and carbohydrases supplementation to diet with partial replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed meal and cottonseed meal on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. Asian- Aust. , J. Anim. Sci., Vol.16 ; pp.1339-1347
    17. SongM.H. KimS.A. KimY.H. ParkJ.C. KimY.H. (2015) Value of spraydried egg in pig nursery diets. , Korean J. Agri. Sci., Vol.42 ; pp.207-213